pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tglx/history.git  about / heads / tags
Linux kernel history
$ git log --pretty=format:'%h %s (%cs)%d'
e7e173af42dbf Linux 2.6.12-rc2 (2005-04-03)
	(HEAD -> master, tag: v2.6.12-rc2)
607899e17218b [PATCH] x86_64: Fix segment constraints (2005-04-03)
d21ca622e8b80 [PATCH] missing gameport dependencies (2005-04-03)
92bff94b41b20 [PATCH] missing include in lanai.c (2005-04-03)
6bcca14e4f981 [PATCH] cpuset.c __user annotations (2005-04-03)
b32adaf212f54 [PATCH] usblcd portability fix (2005-04-03)
63c706b924ed0 [PATCH] jsm fixes (2005-04-03)
376b07691ec54 [PATCH] generic_serial.c portability fix (2005-04-03)
1fa6bac57b20c [PATCH] non-portable include in coda (2005-04-03)
7a81513e6cba3 [PATCH] Fix Oops in MXB driver (v4l2 subsystem) (2005-04-03)

$ git cat-file blob HEAD:README
	Linux kernel release 2.6.xx

These are the release notes for Linux version 2.6.  Read them carefully,
as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong. 


  Linux is a Unix clone written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with
  assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net.
  It aims towards POSIX compliance. 

  It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged
  Unix, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries,
  demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory
  management and TCP/IP networking. 

  It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
  accompanying COPYING file for more details. 


  Linux was first developed for 386/486-based PCs.  These days it also
  runs on ARMs, DEC Alphas, SUN Sparcs, M68000 machines (like Atari and
  Amiga), MIPS and PowerPC, and others.


 - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
   the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
   general UNIX questions.  I'd recommend looking into the documentation
   subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
   Project) books.  This README is not meant to be documentation on the
   system: there are much better sources available.

 - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
   these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some 
   drivers for example. See Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
   is contained in each file.  Please read the Changes file, as it
   contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading
   your kernel.

 - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
   kernel developers and users.  These guides can be rendered in a
   number of formats:  PostScript (.ps), PDF, and HTML, among others.
   After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", or "make htmldocs"
   will render the documentation in the requested format.

INSTALLING the kernel:

 - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
   directory where you have permissions (eg. your home directory) and
   unpack it:

		gzip -cd linux-2.6.XX.tar.gz | tar xvf -

   Replace "XX" with the version number of the latest kernel.

   Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually
   incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header
   files.  They should match the library, and not get messed up by
   whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be.

 - You can also upgrade between 2.6.xx releases by patching.  Patches are
   distributed in the traditional gzip and the new bzip2 format.  To
   install by patching, get all the newer patch files, enter the
   top level directory of the kernel source (linux-2.6.xx) and execute:

		gzip -cd ../patch-2.6.xx.gz | patch -p1

		bzip2 -dc ../patch-2.6.xx.bz2 | patch -p1

   (repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current
   source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok.  You may want to remove
   the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no
   failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has
   made a mistake.

   Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
   process.  It determines the current kernel version and applies any
   patches found.

		linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux

   The first argument in the command above is the location of the
   kernel source.  Patches are applied from the current directory, but
   an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.

 - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:

		cd linux
		make mrproper

   You should now have the sources correctly installed.


   Compiling and running the 2.6.xx kernels requires up-to-date
   versions of various software packages.  Consult
   Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
   and how to get updates for these packages.  Beware that using
   excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
   errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
   you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
   build or operation.

BUILD directory for the kernel:

   When compiling the kernel all output files will per default be
   stored together with the kernel source code.
   Using the option "make O=output/dir" allow you to specify an alternate
   place for the output files (including .config).
     kernel source code:	/usr/src/linux-2.6.N
     build directory:		/home/name/build/kernel

   To configure and build the kernel use:
   cd /usr/src/linux-2.6.N
   make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig
   make O=/home/name/build/kernel
   sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel modules_install install

   Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used then it must be
   used for all invocations of make.

CONFIGURING the kernel:

   Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
   version.  New configuration options are added in each release, and
   odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
   as expected.  If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
   new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will
   only ask you for the answers to new questions.

 - Alternate configuration commands are:
	"make menuconfig"  Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs.
	"make xconfig"     X windows (Qt) based configuration tool.
	"make gconfig"     X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool.
	"make oldconfig"   Default all questions based on the contents of
			   your existing ./.config file.
	NOTES on "make config":
	- having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
	  under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
	  nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers
	- compiling the kernel with "Processor type" set higher than 386
	  will result in a kernel that does NOT work on a 386.  The
	  kernel will detect this on bootup, and give up.
	- A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the
	  coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just
	  never get used in that case.  The kernel will be slightly larger,
	  but will work on different machines regardless of whether they
	  have a math coprocessor or not. 
	- the "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a
	  bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel
	  less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to
	  break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()).  Thus you
	  should probably answer 'n' to the questions for
          "development", "experimental", or "debugging" features.

 - Check the top Makefile for further site-dependent configuration
   (default SVGA mode etc). 

COMPILING the kernel:

 - Make sure you have gcc 2.95.3 available.
   gcc 2.91.66 (egcs-1.1.2), and gcc are known to miscompile
   some parts of the kernel, and are *no longer supported*.
   Also remember to upgrade your binutils package (for as/ld/nm and company)
   if necessary. For more information, refer to Documentation/Changes.

   Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel.

 - Do a "make" to create a compressed kernel image. It is also
   possible to do "make install" if you have lilo installed to suit the
   kernel makefiles, but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first.

   To do the actual install you have to be root, but none of the normal
   build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain.

 - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as `modules', you
   will also have to do "make modules_install".

 - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong.  This is 
   especially true for the development releases, since each new release
   contains new code which has not been debugged.  Make sure you keep a
   backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well.  If you
   are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
   working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
   do a "make modules_install".

 - In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel
   image (e.g. .../linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage after compilation)
   to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found. 

 - Booting a kernel directly from a floppy without the assistance of a
   bootloader such as LILO, is no longer supported.

   If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO which
   uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf.  The
   kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, /boot/vmlinuz, /bzImage or
   /boot/bzImage.  To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image
   and copy the new image over the old one.  Then, you MUST RERUN LILO
   to update the loading map!! If you don't, you won't be able to boot
   the new kernel image.

   Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo. 
   You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your
   old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not
   work.  See the LILO docs for more information. 

   After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set.  Shutdown the system,
   reboot, and enjoy!

   If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
   ramdisk size, etc.  in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or
   alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate).  No need to
   recompile the kernel to change these parameters. 

 - Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy. 


 - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
   the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
   with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there
   isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail
   them to me (, and possibly to any other relevant
   mailing-list or to the newsgroup.

 - In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about,
   how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common
   sense).  If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
   old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.

 - If the bug results in a message like

	unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
	Oops: 0002
	eax: xxxxxxxx   ebx: xxxxxxxx   ecx: xxxxxxxx   edx: xxxxxxxx
	esi: xxxxxxxx   edi: xxxxxxxx   ebp: xxxxxxxx
	ds: xxxx  es: xxxx  fs: xxxx  gs: xxxx
	Pid: xx, process nr: xx
	xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

   or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your
   system log, please duplicate it *exactly*.  The dump may look
   incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may
   help debugging the problem.  The text above the dump is also
   important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in
   the above example it's due to a bad kernel pointer). More information
   on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt

 - If you compiled the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS you can send the dump
   as is, otherwise you will have to use the "ksymoops" program to make
   sense of the dump.  This utility can be downloaded from
   Alternately you can do the dump lookup by hand:

 - In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can
   look up what the EIP value means.  The hex value as such doesn't help
   me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
   kernel setup.  What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
   line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
   see which kernel function contains the offending address.

   To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
   binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom.  This is
   the file 'linux/vmlinux'.  To extract the namelist and match it against
   the EIP from the kernel crash, do:

		nm vmlinux | sort | less

   This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending
   order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the
   offending address.  Note that the address given by the kernel
   debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the
   function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't
   just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting
   point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that
   has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but
   is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one
   you want.  In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of
   "context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the
   interesting one. 

   If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
   kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
   possible will help. 

 - Alternately, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
   cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
   kernel with -g; edit arch/i386/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make
   clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config").

   After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore".
   You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
   point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes
   with the EIP value.)

   gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly)
   disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.

# heads (aka `branches'):
$ git for-each-ref --sort=-creatordate refs/heads \
	--format='%(HEAD) %(refname:short) %(subject) (%(creatordate:short))'
* master       Linux 2.6.12-rc2 (2005-04-03)

# tags:
$ git for-each-ref --sort=-creatordate refs/tags \
	--format='%(refname:short) %(subject) (%(creatordate:short))'
v2.6.12-rc2  Linux 2.6.12-rc2 (2005-04-03) tar.gz
v2.6.11.5    Linux (2005-03-18) tar.gz
v2.6.12-rc1  Linux 2.6.12-rc1 (2005-03-17) tar.gz
v2.6.11.4    Linux (2005-03-14) tar.gz
v2.6.11.3    Linux (2005-03-12) tar.gz
v2.6.11.2    Linux (2005-03-08) tar.gz
v2.6.11.1    Linux (2005-03-03) tar.gz
v2.6.11      Linux 2.6.11 (2005-03-01) tar.gz
v2.6.11-rc5  Linux 2.6.11-rc5 (2005-02-23) tar.gz
v2.6.11-rc4  Linux 2.6.11-rc4 (2005-02-12) tar.gz

# associated public inboxes:
# (number on the left is used for dev purposes)
      62476 lkml
      31405 stable
       9162 netdev
       4787 linux-arm-kernel
       3683 linux-scsi
       3032 dri-devel
       2645 linux-mm
       1892 linux-devicetree
       1852 kvm
       1823 linux-media
       1502 linuxppc-dev
       1379 linux-fsdevel
       1329 linux-wireless
       1191 linux-mips
       1138 virtualization
       1077 linux-arch
        991 qemu-devel
        981 linux-btrfs
        942 linux-rdma
        869 linux-nfs
        856 linux-mtd
        852 alsa-devel
        852 u-boot
        793 linux-samsung-soc
        767 intel-gfx
        753 linux-ide
        667 linux-omap
        634 linux-acpi
        619 linux-ext4
        593 netfilter-devel
        577 xen-devel
        543 linux-pm
        530 linux-tegra
        522 linux-xfs
        513 linux-arm-msm
        486 linux-crypto
        467 linux-mmc
        465 kernel-janitors
        464 linux-s390
        459 linux-usb
        458 lm-sensors
        444 linux-iommu
        421 ocfs2-devel
        415 linux-bluetooth
        395 linux-cifs
        370 amd-gfx
        365 dpdk-dev
        360 bpf
        353 kvm-ppc
        348 linux-input
        341 git
        335 linux-serial
        326 buildroot
        323 linux-clk
        320 ceph-devel
        316 linux-fbdev
        315 platform-driver-x86
        313 sparclinux
        310 linux-m68k
        304 linux-pci
        284 linux-api
        270 linux-mediatek
        247 linux-i2c
        240 linux-block
        234 linux-gpio
        227 linux-next
        224 linux-ia64
        223 linux-sh
        218 linux-efi
        209 linux-kselftest
        205 linux-spi
        202 linux-renesas-soc
        196 linux-um
        192 linux-kbuild
        185 linux-raid
        184 linux-iio
        181 linux-f2fs-devel
        180 linux-watchdog
        180 openembedded-core
        173 linux-coco
        170 cluster-devel
        167 linux-rockchip
        166 linux-doc
        166 dm-devel
        159 cgroups
        155 nouveau
        144 driverdev-devel
        142 intel-wired-lan
        138 kexec
        126 dmaengine
        126 openembedded-devel
        124 linux-kernel-announce
        119 linux-riscv
        118 containers
        115 linux-amlogic
        109 linux-rtc
        108 linux-nvme
        102 linux-parisc
        101 linux-can
         98 kvmarm
         96 linux-patches
         93 linux-perf-users
         90 linux-security-module
         89 linux-sctp
         88 linux-nilfs
         80 batman
         74 ath10k
         73 reiserfs-devel
         72 selinux
         70 linux-staging
         63 lvm-devel
         60 linux-integrity
         60 linux-alpha
         59 yocto
         58 linux-snps-arc
         57 linux-wpan
         57 linux-hexagon
         56 linux-hwmon
         56 ltp
         54 linux-edac
         53 kernel-hardening
         51 linux-rt-users
         49 linux-pwm
         49 qemu-riscv
         48 ../../../../../../../igt-dev
         47 linux-hyperv
         47 openbmc
         47 target-devel
         47 ecryptfs
         47 bridge
         43 linux-bcache
         41 keyrings
         41 nvdimm
         39 rcu
         39 openrisc
         37 linux-hams
         36 mptcp
         35 linux-leds
         34 linux-sunxi
         34 ath9k-devel
         34 autofs
         33 linux-nvdimm
         33 linux-remoteproc
         32 linux-audit
         31 lustre-devel
         30 linux-man
         30 linux-hardening
         29 lvs-devel
         27 linux-csky
         27 cip-dev
         26 linux-trace-devel
         25 dccp
         24 fstests
         24 soc
         24 llvm
         23 ntb
         22 ath11k
         21 lttng-dev
         21 linux-phy
         20 bitbake-devel
         20 netfilter
         19 io-uring
         19 mm-commits
         19 outreachy
         19 intel-xe
         18 linux-unionfs
         18 grub-devel
         17 linux-sparse
         17 yocto-meta-ti
         17 cpufreq
         16 b43-dev
         16 iwd
         16 yocto-meta-freescale
         16 linux-metag
         15 phone-devel
         14 util-linux
         14 linux-kernel-mentees
         14 linux-cxl
         14 ofono
         14 xenomai
         13 selinux-refpolicy
         13 fio
         13 yocto-meta-arago
         12 historical-speck
         12 linux-x25
         11 linux-fscrypt
         11 linux-erofs
         10 linux-modules
         10 linux-sgx
         10 linux-trace-kernel
         10 oe-kbuild-all
         10 kernel-testers
         10 virtio-fs
          9 backports
          9 linux-fpga
          9 regressions
          9 mhi
          8 yocto-toaster
          8 yocto-meta-arm
          8 yocto-docs
          8 yocto-meta-virtualization
          8 loongarch
          8 poky
          7 b4-sent
          7 oe-lkp
          7 linux-hotplug
          7 perfbook
          6 live-patching
          6 linux-firmware
          6 virtio-dev
          6 linux-sound
          6 ../../../../../../../fuego
          5 cocci
          5 rust-for-linux
          5 initramfs
          4 linux-ppp
          4 chrome-platform
          4 kvm-ia64
          4 linux-embedded
          3 linux-i3c
          3 wireguard
          3 tpmdd-devel
          3 linux-dash
          3 xdp-newbies
          3 dash
          3 ell
          3 imx
          3 kernelci
          3 virtio-comment
          3 v9fs
          3 devicetree-compiler
          3 hail-devel
          3 linux-btrace
          3 u-boot-amlogic
          3 ../../../../../../../powertop
          2 linux-spdx
          2 ksummit-discuss
          2 linux-lvm
          2 ksummit
          2 linux-nfc
          2 connman
          2 linux-bcachefs
          2 ntfs3
          2 ath12k
          2 oe-linux-nfc
          2 trinity
          2 linux-smp
          2 linux-oxnas
          2 acpica-devel
          1 kernelnewbies
          1 workflows
          1 tools
          1 damon
          1 asahi
          1 oe-chipsec
          1 fsverity
          1 kdevops
          1 kbd
          1 devicetree-spec
          1 linux-8086
          1 linux-laptop
          1 linux-newbie
          1 linux-numa
          1 smatch
          1 ../../../../../../../wireless-regdb

git clone