unicorn.git  about / heads / tags
Rack HTTP server for Unix and fast clients
$ git log --pretty=format:'%h %s (%cs)%d'
6c9c442 t/lib.perl: fix Perl integration tests w/o installation (2024-04-15)
	(HEAD -> master)
e9a7341 treewide: future-proof frozen_string_literal changes (2024-03-31)
adc5c16 doc: various updates and disclaimers (2024-03-31)
a600093 tests: port back-out-of-upgrade to Perl 5 (2024-03-31)
782c06c t/integration: disable proxies when running curl(1) (2024-03-31)
d71d328 update dependency to Ruby 2.5+ (2024-01-15)
b652fa5 kill off remaining kgio uses (2024-01-15)
31d0539 remove kgio from all read(2) and write(2) wrappers (2024-01-15)
a86f538 README: fix wording (2023-10-03)
78c9aa8 doc: various updates ahead of the release (2023-09-11)

$ git cat-file blob HEAD:README
= unicorn: Rack HTTP server for fast clients and Unix

unicorn is an HTTP server for Rack applications that has done
decades of damage to the entire Ruby ecosystem due to its ability
to tolerate (and thus encourage) bad code.  It is only designed
to handle fast clients on low-latency, high-bandwidth connections
and take advantage of features in Unix/Unix-like kernels.
Slow clients must only be served by placing a reverse proxy capable of
fully buffering both the the request and response in between unicorn
and slow clients.

== Features

* Designed for Rack, Unix, fast clients, and ease-of-debugging.  We
  cut out everything that is better supported by the operating system,
  {nginx}[https://nginx.org/] or {Rack}[https://rack.github.io/].

* Compatible with Ruby 2.5 and later.

* Process management: unicorn reaps and restarts workers that die
  from broken code.  There is no need to manage multiple processes
  or ports yourself.  unicorn can spawn and manage any number of
  worker processes you choose to scale to your backend.

* Load balancing is done entirely by the operating system kernel.
  Requests never pile up behind a busy worker process.

* Does not care if your application is thread-safe or not, workers
  all run within their own isolated address space and only serve one
  client at a time for maximum robustness.

* Builtin reopening of all log files in your application via
  USR1 signal.  This allows logrotate to rotate files atomically and
  quickly via rename instead of the racy and slow copytruncate method.
  unicorn also takes steps to ensure multi-line log entries from one
  request all stay within the same file.

* nginx-style binary upgrades without losing connections.
  You can upgrade unicorn, your entire application, libraries
  and even your Ruby interpreter without dropping clients.

* transparent upgrades using systemd socket activation is
  supported since unicorn 5.0

* before_fork and after_fork hooks in case your application
  has special needs when dealing with forked processes.  These
  should not be needed when the "preload_app" directive is
  false (the default).

* Can be used with copy-on-write-friendly GC in Ruby 2.0+
  to save memory (by setting "preload_app" to true).

* Able to listen on multiple interfaces including UNIX sockets,
  each worker process can also bind to a private port via the
  after_fork hook for easy debugging.

* Simple and easy Ruby DSL for configuration.

* Decodes chunked requests on-the-fly.

== License

unicorn is copyright all contributors (see logs in git).
It is based on Mongrel 1.1.5.
Mongrel is copyright 2007 Zed A. Shaw and contributors.

unicorn is licensed under (your choice) of the GPLv2 or later
(GPLv3+ preferred), or Ruby (1.8)-specific terms.
See the included LICENSE file for details.

unicorn is 100% Free Software (including all development tools used).

== Install

The library consists of a C extension so you'll need a C compiler
and Ruby development libraries/headers.

You may install it via RubyGems on RubyGems.org:

  gem install unicorn

You can get the latest source via git from the following locations
(these versions may not be stable):

  git clone https://yhbt.net/unicorn.git
  git clone https://repo.or.cz/unicorn.git # mirror

You may browse the code from the web:

* https://yhbt.net/unicorn.git
* https://repo.or.cz/w/unicorn.git (gitweb)

See the HACKING guide on how to contribute and build prerelease gems
from git.

== Usage

=== Rack (including Rails 3+) applications

In APP_ROOT, run:


unicorn will bind to all interfaces on TCP port 8080 by default.
You may use the +--listen/-l+ switch to bind to a different
address:port or a UNIX socket.

=== Configuration File(s)

unicorn will look for the config.ru file used by rackup in APP_ROOT.

For deployments, it can use a config file for unicorn-specific options
specified by the +--config-file/-c+ command-line switch.  See
Unicorn::Configurator for the syntax of the unicorn-specific options.
The default settings are designed for maximum out-of-the-box
compatibility with existing applications.

Most command-line options for other Rack applications (above) are also
supported.  Run `unicorn -h` to see command-line options.

== Disclaimer

There is NO WARRANTY whatsoever if anything goes wrong, but
{let us know}[link:ISSUES.html] and maybe someone can fix it.
No commercial support will ever be provided by the amateur maintainer.

unicorn is designed to only serve fast clients either on the local host
or a fast LAN.  See the PHILOSOPHY and DESIGN documents for more details
regarding this.

The use of unicorn in new deployments is STRONGLY DISCOURAGED due to the
damage done to the entire Ruby ecosystem.  Its unintentional popularity
set Ruby back decades in parallelism, concurrency and robustness since
it prolongs and proliferates the existence of poorly-written code.

unicorn hackers are NOT responsible for your supply chain security:
read and understand it yourself or get someone you trust to audit it.
Malicious commits and releases will be made if under duress.  The only
defense you'll ever have is from reviewing the source code.

No user or contributor will ever be expected to sacrifice their own
security by running JavaScript or revealing any personal information.

== Contact

All feedback (bug reports, user/development dicussion, patches, pull
requests) go to the public mailbox.  See the ISSUES document for
information on posting to mailto:unicorn-public@yhbt.net

Mirror-able mail archives are at https://yhbt.net/unicorn-public/

Read-only NNTP access is available at:
nntps://news.public-inbox.org/inbox.comp.lang.ruby.unicorn and

Read-only IMAP access is also available at:
imaps://;AUTH=ANONYMOUS@yhbt.net/inbox.comp.lang.ruby.unicorn.0 and

Archives are also available over POP3, instructions at:

For the latest on unicorn releases, you may also finger us at
unicorn@yhbt.net or check our NEWS page (and subscribe to our Atom

# heads (aka `branches'):
$ git for-each-ref --sort=-creatordate refs/heads \
	--format='%(HEAD) %(refname:short) %(subject) (%(creatordate:short))'
* master       t/lib.perl: fix Perl integration tests w/o installation (2024-04-15)
  pico         ext: switch filter_body to picohttpparser (2021-10-25)
  v6-wip       Merge remote-tracking branch 'origin/master' into v6-wip (2021-03-15)
  gperf        http: gperf 3.0.3 compatibility (2019-07-05)
  no-kgio-wip  remove kgio from all read(2) and write(2) wrappers (2019-05-26)
  5.4-stable   unicorn 5.4.1 (2018-07-23)
  5.3-stable   unicorn 5.3.1 (2017-10-03)
  ccc-tcp-v3   test_ccc: use a pipe to synchronize test (2017-03-22)
  worker_exec  Don't pass a block for fork when forking workers (2017-03-13)
  doc-5.3.0    doc: add version annotations for new features (2017-03-08)

# tags:
$ git for-each-ref --sort=-creatordate refs/tags \
	--format='%(refname:short) %(subject) (%(creatordate:short))'
v6.1.0       unicorn 6.1.0 (2021-12-25) tar.gz
v6.0.0       unicorn 6.0.0 - no more recycling Rack env (2021-03-17) tar.gz
v5.8.0       unicorn 5.8.0 - rack.after_reply support (2020-12-24) tar.gz
v5.7.0       unicorn 5.7.0 (2020-09-08) tar.gz
v5.6.0       unicorn 5.6.0 - early_hints support (2020-07-26) tar.gz
v5.5.5       unicorn 5.5.5 (2020-04-27) tar.gz
v5.5.4       unicorn 5.5.4 (2020-03-24) tar.gz
v5.5.3       unicorn 5.5.3 (2020-01-31) tar.gz
v5.5.2       unicorn 5.5.2 (2019-12-20) tar.gz
v5.5.1       unicorn 5.5.1 (2019-05-06) tar.gz

# associated public inboxes:
# (number on the left is used for dev purposes)

git clone https://yhbt.net/unicorn.git