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From: Eric Wong <e@80x24.org>
To: yahns-public@yhbt.net
Subject: yahns vs unicorn, part 2: accepting connections
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 2016 21:12:56 +0000	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20160412-yahns-vs-unicorn-p@rt2> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20151101092053.GA5328@dcvr.yhbt.net>

Both servers have the ability to bind and listen on multiple
Unix or TCP sockets and share them across multiple worker
processes, but that's where the similarities end.

While yahns is marketed as a "non-blocking application server",
yahns actually uses the blocking accept(2) syscall (or
accept4(2) under Linux) to extract connections from the pending
connection queue.

In an unexpected twist, the old-fashioned unicorn has always
relied on non-blocking accept calls despite relying on blocking
I/O.

unicorn must use non-blocking accept for several reasons:

1. it is the only way to support multiple listen sockets in
   a single-threaded server design

2. spurious wakeups[1] will unfortunately happen because
   multiple workers will select(2) on the same listen socket(s),
   but only one worker can accept the given connection.

3. because of spurious wakeups, a blocking accept which waits
   can invoke the "timeout" feature which causes the master
   process to send SIGKILL to the worker.

Because unicorn has a "timeout" feature, using blocking accept
is actually impossible with a single thread.


With the design of unicorn for short-lived connections, it is
beneficial to reuse the same worker processes as much as
possible to keep CPU caches hot.  Thus we don't care about
fairly distributing connections across workers, as each worker
can only have one connection.

With yahns, connections are long-lived and workers may have
thousands (if not millions :>) of idle connections.
Thus we need to try to balance them as much as possible
across workers.

Unlike nearly every other massively concurrent server, yahns
relies on multiple threads to operate on a SINGLE kqueue/epoll
wait set.  This unique design allows us to use dedicated
threads for accept, allowing at least two beneficial behaviors:

1) we can rely on never getting spurious wakeups since Linux
   provides "wake-one" behavior for blocking accept calls.
   For reference, see inet_csk_wait_for_connect in
   net/ipv4/inet_connection_sock.c of the Linux source:

https://80x24.org/mirrors/linux.git/tree/net/ipv4/inet_connection_sock.c?id=v4.5#n255

   ...which calls the prepare_to_wait_exclusive function

2) the "wake-one" mechanism also leads to fair FIFO ordering
   between acceptor threads by using kernel wait queues.

   The FIFO ordering only happens for "exclusive" operations
   on wait queues as seen by reading the
   prepare_to_wait_exclusive function in kernel/sched/wait.c

https://80x24.org/mirrors/linux.git/tree/kernel/sched/wait.c?id=v4.5#n193

   Note that other wait operations are LIFO (for CPU cache efficiency),
   only the exclusive wait queue operations are FIFO.

With one thread accepting connections per-worker-process, this
FIFO behavior results in a fair distribution of connections
between worker processes.  This is important as yahns
(optionally) uses multiple worker processes.


Thanks for reading.


[1] a spurious wakeup is when a worker wakes up but does
    not have data to read or a connection to accept

      reply	other threads:[~2016-04-12 21:12 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 2+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
     [not found] <20151101-yahns-vs-unicorn-p@rt1>
2015-11-01  9:20 ` yahns vs unicorn, part 1: overview Eric Wong
2016-04-12 21:12   ` Eric Wong [this message]

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